He received his primary education at a Latin school in Florence. He studied painting at Ghirlandaio, sculpture at Bertoldo di Giovanni in the art school founded by Lorenzo Medici in the Medici Gardens. He copied the frescoes of Giotto and Masaccio, studied the sculpture of Donatello, and in 1494 in Bologna met with the works of Jacopo della Quercia. In the house of Lorenzo, where Michelangelo lived for two years, he became acquainted with the philosophy of Neoplatonism, which later had a strong influence on his world outlook and work. The attraction to the monumental enlargement of forms was already evident in his first works – the reliefs “Madonna at the Stairs” (c. 1491, Casa Buonarroti, Florence) and “Battle of the Centaurs” (c. 1492, ibid.).
First Roman period (1496-1501) Continue reading
In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Europeans discovered African, Polynesian, Micronesian and Native American art. Artists such as Paul Gauguin, Henri Matisse and Pablo Picasso were intrigued and inspired by the incredible power and simplicity of the styles of these foreign cultures. Around 1906, Picasso met Matisse thanks to Gertrude Stein, at a time when both artists were only interested in primitivism and Iberian sculpture, African art and masks of African tribes. They became friendly rivals and competed with each other throughout their lives, which, perhaps by 1907, brought Picasso to a new period in his work, which was marked by the influence of Greek, Iberian and African art. Picasso’s paintings of 1907 are defined as protocubism, the forerunner of cubism, which is especially evident in the Continue reading
Cubism was born in the years 1907-1911. Pablo Picasso’s 1907 painting Avignon Maidens is often considered a proto-Cubist work. Georges Braque’s “Homes in Estate” (and related works) prompted the critic Louis Vosel to turn to bizarreries cubiques (cubic oddities). Gertrude Stein referred to landscapes painted by Picasso in 1909, for example, “Pond (Reservoir at Horta de Ebro)” as the first Cubist paintings. The first organized group exhibition of cubists took place at the Salon de la Independent in Paris in the spring of 1911 in a room called Hall 41 (Salle 41); it included the works of Jean Metzinger, Albert Gleize, Fernand Leger, Robert Delaunay and Henri Le Focognier, works by Picasso and Braque have not yet been exhibited.
Paul Cezanne Quarry Bibémus (“The Bibemius Quarry”), 1898-1900, Folkwang Museum, Essen, Germany Continue reading