Spanish art is the art of Spain. Being an important part of Western art (especially under the influence of Italy and France, especially during the periods of Baroque and Classicism) and giving the world many famous and influential artists (including Velazquez, Goya and Picasso), Spanish art often possessed distinctive features and was evaluated to some extent separately from other European schools. These differences can be partially explained by the Moorish heritage of Spain (especially in Andalusia) and the political and cultural climate in Spain during the counter-reformation and the subsequent eclipse of the Spanish authorities during the Bourbon dynasty.
Spanish Art – El Greco (1541-1614), Exposure of Christ (El Espolio)
El Greco (1541-1614), “The Exposure of Christ” (El Espolio) (1577-1579), is one of the most famous altar paintings by El Greco, whose altar paintings are famous for their dynamic compositions and a sense of movement.
Lady Baza, an ancient Iberian sculpture from Baza, Granada
The early Iberians left much behind; northwestern Spain shares with southwestern France areas where the richest finds of Upper Paleolithic art in Europe are found in the Altamira cave and in other areas where rock paintings from between 35,000 and 11,000 BC are found. e. The rock art of the Iberian Mediterranean Basin (as the term is defined by UNESCO) is the art of the eastern part of Spain, probably around 8000-3500 BC. e., it shows animals and hunting scenes, often created with a growing sense of the whole composition of a large-scale scene. Portugal, in particular, is rich in megalithic monuments, including Almendres Cromlech (Cromlech Almendrish), and Iberian schematic art is stone sculpture, petroglyphs and rock paintings from the early Iron Ages, which are found throughout the Iberian Peninsula, with geometric patterns, and also with more frequent use of simple pictogram-like human figures, which is typical for similar types of art from other regions. Casco de Leiro – the late Bronze Age golden ritual helmet can be associated with other golden headdresses found in Germany, and the Villena Treasure is a huge treasure trove of geometrically decorated vessels and jewelry, possibly of the 10th century BC, including 10 kilograms of gold .
The Iberian sculpture before the Roman conquest reflects contacts with other advanced ancient cultures that created small coastal colonies, including the Greeks and Phoenicians; The Phoenician settlement of Sa Caleta in Ibiza has been preserved for excavation, most of it is now located under large cities, and Lady Guardamar was found during excavations in another Phoenician site. The lady from Elche (probably the 4th century BC) probably represents Tanit, but also shows Hellenistic influence, like the Sphinx from Agost and Beach from Balasote of the 6th century. Gisando’s bulls are the most impressive example of verraco – large Celtic-Iberian stone animal sculptures; Bull from Osuna of the 5th century BC e. is the most developed single example. Several decorated Falcata survived – characteristic twisted Iberian swords, as well as many bronze figurines used as votive images. The Romans gradually conquered all of Iberia between 218 BC. e. and 19 g. e.
As elsewhere in the Western Empire, Roman occupation largely destroyed local styles; Iberia was an important agricultural area for the Romans, and the elite acquired vast estates producing wheat, olives and wine, some later emperors came from the Iberian provinces; during excavations, many huge villas were discovered. The aqueduct in Segovia, the Roman walls of Lugo, the Alcantara Bridge (104-106 CE) and the Tower of Hercules lighthouse are well-preserved large monuments, impressive examples of Roman engineering, if not always art. Roman temples are well preserved in Vic, Evora (now in Portugal) and Alcantara, their elements are also preserved in Barcelona and Cordoba. There should have been local workshops producing high-quality mosaics, although most of the best freestanding sculpture was probably imported. Missorius Theodosius I is a famous silver dish of late antiquity, which was found in Spain, but probably created in Constantinople.