STYLES AND DIRECTIONS IN THE FINE ART
There is a huge variety of styles and trends in the visual arts. Often they do not have clearly defined boundaries and smoothly pass from one to another, being in continuous development, mixing and counteraction.
Within the framework of one historical artistic style, a new one is always born, and that, in turn, passes into the next, etc. Many styles coexist at the same time and therefore there are no “pure styles” at all.
Abstractionism (from lat. Abstractio – removal, distraction) – the direction of art, abandoned the approximate reality of images of forms in painting and sculpture. One of the goals of abstractionism is to achieve harmony, to create certain color combinations and geometric shapes in order to evoke various associations in the contemplator. The main representatives of abstractionism were: Vasily Kandinsky (1866-1944), Pablo Picasso (1881-1973).
Abstract impressionism is the direction of abstract art in which free abstract compositions are created with a large brushstroke. The meaning of the image was to reflect the psychological state of the artist and his character.
Masters of Abstract Impressionism: Jackson Shelves, Mark Rothko, Willem de Kooning, Franz Kline, Lee Krasner
Abstract expressionism (from the English abstract expressionism) is a direction of abstract art in which free compositions are created by a large, impulsive brushstroke.
Masters of abstract expressionism: Jackson Pollock, Arshile Gorky, Hans Hoffman, William de Kunning, Mark Rothko, Robert Motherwell, Barnett Newman.
Avant-gardism (from the French avant-garde – advanced detachment) is a combination of experimental, modernist, emphasized unusual, exploratory undertakings in the art of the 20th century. Vanguard trends are: Fauvism, Cubism, Futurism, Expressionism, Abstractionism, Surrealism, Actionism, Pop Art, Conceptual Art.
Academism (from the French academisme) is a direction in European painting of the 16th-19th centuries. It was based on the dogmatic following of the external forms of classical art. Followers characterized this style as a discourse on the art form of the ancient ancient world and the Renaissance. Academism replenished the traditions of ancient art, in which the image of nature was idealized, while compensating for the norm of beauty. Annibale, Agostino and Lodovico Carracci wrote in this style.
Actionism (from the English. Action art – the art of action) – happening, performance, event, the art of the process, the art of demonstration and a number of other forms that arose in avant-garde art of the 1960s. In accordance with the ideology of actionism, the artist must organize events and processes. Actionism seeks to blur the line between art and reality.
Napoleon in his office in the Tuileries. Jacques-Louis David
Empire (from the French. Empire – empire) – a style in architecture and decorative art that arose in France at the beginning of the XIX century, during the First Empire of Napoleon Bonaparte. Empire is the final development of classicism. For the embodiment of majesty, sophistication, luxury, power and military strength, Ampiru is characterized by an appeal to ancient art: ancient Egyptian decorative forms (trophies, winged sphinxes …), Etruscan vases, Pompeii paintings, Greek and Roman decor, Renaissance frescoes and ornaments. The main representative of this style was J.L. David (paintings “The Oath of Horatius” (1784), “Brutus” (1789))
In the paintings of this period appear translucent, iridescent, intersecting planes, the position of which is not clearly defined. The arrangement of forms in space and their relation to large compositional masses are constantly changing. The result is a visual interaction of form and space. Analytical cubism was developed by artists from the Golden Section art association: Albert Gleize, Marcel Duchamp, Raymond Duchamp-Villon, Jean Metzinger and Jacques Villon.
Analytical art is an artistic method developed and justified by Pavel Filonov in a number of theoretical works and in his own pictorial work of 1910-1920.
Based on cubism as the bearer of a rationalistic principle, Filonov contrasted him with the principle of organic growth (from particular to general) of the art form and the “completeness” of paintings. The principle of completeness is the main point of Analytical Art.
Anachronism (from the Greek. Ana – back and hronos – time), another name – hyper-Mannerism – one of the directions of postmodernism, offering an author’s interpretation of the art of the past. Anachronism arose in the late 1970s. in Italy, later in France. Masters of Anachronism: Carlo Maria Mariani, Omar Galliani, Luigi Ontani, Stefano di Stacio, Ubaldo Bartolini, Antonio Abbate, Jean Garuy.
Winter Underground landscape (from the English underground – underground, underground) is a series of artistic trends in contemporary art that oppose themselves to mass culture and the mainstream.