Abstract and readymade
The most extreme forms of cubism were not those practiced by Picasso and Braque, who resisted complete abstraction, but other cubists, especially Frantisek Kupka, and those whom Apollinaire attributed to the orphists (Delaunay, Leger, Picabia and Duchamp), while taking abstraction, they completely removed visible subject image. Two exhibits of Kupka at the Autumn Salon of 1912, Amorpha. Two-color Fugue “and” Amorpha. Chromatic heat ”, were extremely abstract (or unrepresentative) and metaphysically oriented. Duchamp in 1912 and Picabia in 1912-1914 developed an expressive and symbolic abstraction devoted to complex emotional and sexual topics.
Red Made, Robert Delaunay Simultaneous Windows on the City, 1912, Hamburg Kunsthale
Robert Delaunay Simultaneous Windows on the City, 1912, 46 x 40 cm, Hamburg Kunsthalle, an example of abstract cubism.
Starting in 1912, Delaunay painted the series of paintings “Simultaneous Windows”, which followed the “Rounded Forms”, in which he combined flat structures with bright prismatic shades; based on the optical characteristics of the combined colors, his departure from reality in the image of the images was almost complete. In the years 1913-1914 Leger created a series called “Contrasts of forms”, making a similar emphasis on color, lines and shapes. His cubism, despite its abstraction, was connected with the themes of mechanization and modern life. Apollinaire supported these early achievements of abstract cubism in The Cubist Artists (1913) by writing about a new “clean” painting in which the subject was freed. But despite its use of the term Orphism, these works were so different that they challenged attempts to put them in the same category.
Inspired by cubism, Marcel Duchamp, whom Apollinaire attributed to the Orphists, was also responsible for another extreme current. The readymade arose as a result of a consensus that the work itself is considered an exhibit (just like the picture), and that it uses material fragments of this world (like collage and papier-collet in cubist assemblage designs). The next logical step for Duchamp was to show an ordinary object as an independent work of art that represents only itself. In 1913, he attached a bicycle wheel to a kitchen stool, and in 1914 he chose a bottle dryer as a separate sculpture.
The Golden Section, also known as the Puteau group, founded by the most prominent cubists, was an association of artists, sculptors and critics who were associated with cubism and orphism, active around 1911-1914, and gained fame after the discussion exhibition Salon of Independents 1911 of the year. The Golden Section Salon at the La Boetie Gallery in Paris in October 1912 was perhaps the most important Cubist exhibition before World War I; showing cubism to a wide audience. More than 200 works presented at the exhibition, and the fact that many of the artists showed the development of their works from 1909 to 1912, gave her the charm of a retrospective of cubism.
Apparently, the group adopted the name Golden Section to distinguish itself from the narrow definition of cubism, which was simultaneously developed by Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque in Montmartre, and to show that cubism is no longer an isolated form of art, but is a continuation of a great tradition ( in fact, the golden ratio has fascinated Western intellectuals of various circles for at least 2,400 years).
Cubism, Sculpture by Jozsef Chucki Groupe de femmes (“Group of Women”)
The Autumn Salon of 1912 was held in Paris at the Grand Palace from October 1 to November 8. Sculpture by Jozsef Chucky Groupe de femmes (“Group of Women”) 1911-1912. exhibited on the left, in front of two sculptures of Amedeo Modigliani. Other works by artists of the Golden Section are presented from left to right: Frantisek Kupka, Francis Picabia, Jean Metzinger and Henri Le Focognier.
The idea of the “Golden Section” arose during a conversation between Metzinger, Glez and Jacques Villon. The name of the group was proposed by Villon, after reading in 1910 a translation of Joseph Peladan’s manuscripts by Leonardo da Vinci entitled “Treatise on Painting” (Codex Urbinas).
The fact that the 1912 exhibition was organized to show the successive stages that Cubism went through, and the fact that the treatise “On Cubism” was published on this occasion, indicates the desire of artists to make their work understandable to a wide audience (art critics, collectors, art dealers and the general public). Undoubtedly, thanks to the great success of the exhibition, Cubism was recognized as a trend, genre or style in art with a specific general philosophy or goal: a new avant-garde trend.