Cubism until 1914
There is a clear distinction between the cubists of Canweiler and the cubists of the Salon. Until 1914, Braque, Picasso and Leger (to a lesser extent), Gris received the support of the only interested art dealer in Paris, Daniel-Henri Canweiler, who guaranteed them an annual income for the exclusive right to acquire their work. I sold them only to a small circle of connoisseurs. His support gave artists the freedom to experiment in relative privacy. Picasso worked at Montmartre until 1912, while Braque and Gris remained there until the end of World War I. Leger settled on Montparnasse.
Albert Gleize Man on a Balcony (Portrait of Dr. Théo Morinaud) (1912, oil on canvas, 195.6 x 114.9 cm, Philadelphia Museum of Art). Finished in the same year as the book of Albert Glease “On Cubism” in collaboration with Jean Metzenge. Exhibited at the Autumn Salon in Paris in 1912, and at the Arsenal Exhibition in New York, Chicago and Boston in 1913.
At the same time, salon cubists built their reputation, first of all, regularly exhibiting at the Autumn Salon and the Salon of Independents, the main non-academic salons in Paris. They were inevitably more aware of public feedback and the need for communication. Already in 1910, a group began to form, which included Metzinger, Gleza, Delaunay and Leger. They met regularly in the workshop of Henri Le Focognier near the Boulevard de Montparnasse. These evenings were often attended by such writers as Guillaume Apollinaire and Andre Salmon. Together with other young artists, the group wanted to focus research on form, as opposed to neo-impressionists who emphasized color …
Louis Voxel, in his review of the 26th Salon of the Independent (1910), briefly and vaguely referred to Metzinger, Gleize, Delaunay, Leger and Le Focognier as “ignorant geometers who reduced the human body to pale cubes.” At the Autumn Salon of 1910, a few months later, Metzinger exhibited an extremely broken Nude (Nu à la cheminée), which was later reproduced in Apollinaire’s book Cubist Artists: Reflections on Art (1913).
The first social contradiction generated by cubism arose as a result of salon exhibitions at the Independents in the spring of 1911. This show by Metzinger, Gleize, Delaunay, Le Faucier and Leger first attracted the attention of Cubism to the general public. Among the Cubist works presented, Robert Delaunay exhibited the Eiffel Tower (Solomon Guggenheim Museum, New York).
At the Autumn Salon of the same year, in addition to the Zall 41 group of independent artists, works by Andre Lot, Marcel Duchamp, Jacques Villon, Roger de la Frenet, Andre Dunoye de Segonzac and Frantisek Kupka were exhibited. Review of the exhibition was published on October 8, 1911 in the New York Times. This article was published a year after the “Wild Men of Paris” by Gelett Burgess, and two years before the Arsenal exhibition, which amazed Americans who are accustomed to realistic art, as well as to the experimental styles of European avant-garde, including Fauvism, Cubism and Futurism . An article by the New York Times in 1911 illustrated the works of Picasso, Matisse, Derain, Metzenge and other artists written before 1909; not exhibited in the “Salon” of 1911. It was called “Cubists dominate the Autumn Salon in Paris” and the subtitle “Eccentric School of Painting is increasing its popularity at the current art exhibition – what its followers are trying to do.”
“Among all the paintings at the exhibition in the Paris Autumn Salon, nothing attracts so much attention as an extraordinary creation of the so-called school of Cubism. In fact, reports from Paris suggest that these works are an easy main feature of the exhibition.
Despite the crazy nature of the theories of cubism, the number of those who profess them is quite significant. Georges Braque, Andre Deren, Picasso, Chobel, Oton Frieze, Erben, Metzenge – these are several names that signed the canvases that Paris stood before, and now he is again in complete amazement.
What do they mean? Those who are responsible for them said goodbye to their minds? Is it art or madness? Who knows?”
The subsequent “Salon of Independents” of 1912 was marked by the presentation of Marcel Duchamp’s painting “Nude, Going Down Stairs No. 2,” which caused a scandal, even among cubists. In fact, it was rejected by the exhibition committee, which included his brothers and other cubists. However, the work was shown at the Golden Section Salon in October 1912 and at the 1913 Arsenal Exhibition in New York, Duchamp never forgave his brothers and former colleagues for censoring his work. Juan Gris, the new acquisition of the Salon Society, exhibited “Portrait of Picasso” (Chicago Institute of the Arts), while the two Metzenge exhibitions included “Woman with a Horse” (La Femme au Cheval) 1911-1912 (National Gallery of Denmark). The exhibition also featured the monumental “City of Paris”