Landscape is a young genre of fine art. The image of nature has emerged relatively recently in an independent niche. Until the XVII-XVIII centuries, the concept of “landscape” did not exist. Pieces of nature with scanty prints accompanied the flat icon-writing, interspersed in historical plots and myths. Its flowering story of nature reached around the middle of the XIX century. This leap is associated with the invention of a tube-like pigment of paints, when the artist could work away from the workshop and engage in an open air.
Plein air painting enriched and diversified landscape paintings, allowed to go on trips to write a number of thematic subjects – landscapes of the east, Oceania, rural expanses and forests.
During the “reign” of the academic school of painting, landscape was allocated a secondary role. With the advent of the Impressionists, the genre depicting the true natural and in some places embellished beauty took an independent leading role. The main founders of landscape painting are Europeans. Moreover, the first attempts to erect the imprint of natural open spaces in the paintings appeared back in the distant 15th century during the early Renaissance period in Italian painting (quattrocento). And this is on a par with the same religious scenes.
With the advent of concepts such as composition and perspective during the High Renaissance, Italians began a painstaking search for an approach to the picturesque motifs of the surrounding space. If earlier the landscape was scanty and timid, now (16th century), artists devoted a lot of time and attention to this element. An example of this was the famous portrait of Mona Lisa, painted by the great Leonardo.
The Venetian Renaissance masters played a significant role in the formation of the landscape. In their canvases, nature became the main character, filling the entire space of the picture, leaving a small center for the remaining characters (“Escape to Egypt” by Titian or “Thunderstorm” by Giorgione).
With the further development of the landscape, certain areas began to stand out depending on the region. So, the Dutch school of painting was distinguished by muted colors and light ashy color, warm olive, brown colors. The Florentine school turned to ocher, sandy colors, airy landscapes and thin trees. French landscape painters used more realistic colors, an ultramarine sky, morning haze and a darker palette. Painting of the end of the XVII century became more real. Now the images were built on the basis of a genuine picture of nature with elements of idealization (for example, the work of Claude Lorren). During this period, Classicism reached its peak.
In contrast to the calm nature of the classics, baroque artists sought to agitate the elements and ruffle the world around them. The smooth narrative of the intricate paintings of forests and rivers turned into dynamic stories with a hurricane, disasters and earthquakes.
Along with the natural landscape, the architectural gradually crept into the world of art. Its beginnings remained in the past of the Middle Ages, but in the XVIII century, the Rococo code walked on the heads of lovers of beauty, the Venetian authors excelled in landscape painting (Canaletto, Guardi, etc.). The Frenchman Fragonard surpassed his associates, giving preference to a pink tint and a juicy colorful landscape.
Appeal to the nature of created nature, the authors of paintings, both the Enlightenment and the Romantic, created real copies of rural expanses and forests. European and American art of the 18th century was marked by the appearance of a seascape. And our striking follower was our Ivan Konstantinovich Aivazovsky, whose work to this day causes genuine delight from the details of the deeps and waves.
Stepping into the modern world of art, the landscape has become much more diverse, in some places more true, in some places – more fabulous. Using a variety of writing techniques, including decorative, contemporaries paint landscapes of exotic forests of Southeast Asia (Gobang, Indonesia) with genuine childishness and contrast, relish the juicy colors of a sketchbook and put flowers on a bright spot, throw a surface of the sea and glare onto a plane (A. Milyukov in the film “Koktebel”, 2005), depart from the canons of the old school of painting or, conversely, return to its origins.
The 20th century is characterized by an appeal to the landscape of the most diverse representatives of painting – Fauvists, Cubists, Realists and Post-Impressionists. Regardless of the difference in direction, their landscapes were always individual and read by the audience with rapture. Picturesque pictures of nature exist as a single whole on a par with other genres and are unique, as something singular and difficult to write.