He received his primary education at a Latin school in Florence. He studied painting at Ghirlandaio, sculpture at Bertoldo di Giovanni in the art school founded by Lorenzo Medici in the Medici Gardens. He copied the frescoes of Giotto and Masaccio, studied the sculpture of Donatello, and in 1494 in Bologna met with the works of Jacopo della Quercia. In the house of Lorenzo, where Michelangelo lived for two years, he became acquainted with the philosophy of Neoplatonism, which later had a strong influence on his world outlook and work. The attraction to the monumental enlargement of forms was already evident in his first works – the reliefs “Madonna at the Stairs” (c. 1491, Casa Buonarroti, Florence) and “Battle of the Centaurs” (c. 1492, ibid.).
First Roman period (1496-1501) Continue reading
Already in the early paintings, written before moving to Florence, the harmonious warehouse of talent inherent in Raphael had an effect, his ability to find perfect agreement of forms, rhythms, colors, movements, gestures – and in such small-format works, almost miniatures like Madonna Conestabile (c. 1502-03, Hermitage), “The Knight’s Dream” (c. 1504, National Gallery, London), “Three Graces” (Conde Museum, Chantilly), “St. George” (c. 1504, National Gallery, Washington) , and in a larger format “Mary’s Betrothal” (1504, Brera, Milan).
Florence period (1504-08)
Relocation played a huge role in the creative development of Raphael. Of primary importance to him was familiarity with the method of Leonardo da Vinci. Following Leonardo, he begins to work a lot from nature, studies anatomy, mechanics of movements, complex poses and camera angles, searches for compact, rhythmically balanced composition formulas. In the latest Florentine works of Raphael (“Position in the Sepulcher”, 1507, Borghese Gallery, Rome; “St. Catherine of Continue reading
Just like in painting, cubist sculpture is rooted in the reduction by Paul Cezanne of drawn objects to compound planes and geometric bodies (cubes, spheres, cylinders and cones). And just like in painting, it became an all-pervasive influence and significantly contributed to constructivism and futurism.
Cubist sculpture developed in parallel with cubism in painting. In the fall of 1909, Picasso created “The Head of a Woman (Fernando)” with positive features using negative and positive space. According to Douglas Cooper: “The first real cubist sculpture was the impressive“ Woman’s Head ”by Picasso, modeled in 1909-1910, the equivalent in three dimensions for many of these analytical and faceted heads in his paintings of that time.” These positive / negative changes were ambitiously used by Alexander Arkhipenko in 1912-1913, for example, in The Walking Woman. After Arkhipenko, Jozsef Chaki was the first sculptor in Paris to join the Cubists, with whom he exhibited Continue reading
The most extreme forms of cubism were not those practiced by Picasso and Braque, who resisted complete abstraction, but other cubists, especially Frantisek Kupka, and those whom Apollinaire attributed to the orphists (Delaunay, Leger, Picabia and Duchamp), while taking abstraction, they completely removed visible subject image. Two exhibits of Kupka at the Autumn Salon of 1912, Amorpha. Two-color Fugue “and” Amorpha. Chromatic heat ”, were extremely abstract (or unrepresentative) and metaphysically oriented. Duchamp in 1912 and Picabia in 1912-1914 developed an expressive and symbolic abstraction devoted to complex emotional and sexual topics.
Red Made, Robert Delaunay Simultaneous Windows on the City, 1912, Hamburg Kunsthale
Robert Delaunay Simultaneous Windows on the City, 1912, 46 x 40 cm, Hamburg Kunsthalle, an example of abstract cubism.
Starting in 1912, Delaunay painted the series of paintings “Simultaneous Windows”, which followed the “Rounded Continue reading
There is a clear distinction between the cubists of Canweiler and the cubists of the Salon. Until 1914, Braque, Picasso and Leger (to a lesser extent), Gris received the support of the only interested art dealer in Paris, Daniel-Henri Canweiler, who guaranteed them an annual income for the exclusive right to acquire their work. I sold them only to a small circle of connoisseurs. His support gave artists the freedom to experiment in relative privacy. Picasso worked at Montmartre until 1912, while Braque and Gris remained there until the end of World War I. Leger settled on Montparnasse.
Albert Gleize Man on a Balcony (Portrait of Dr. Théo Morinaud) (1912, oil on canvas, 195.6 x 114.9 cm, Philadelphia Museum of Art). Finished in the same year as the book of Albert Glease “On Cubism” in collaboration with Jean Metzenge. Exhibited at the Autumn Salon in Paris in 1912, and at the Arsenal Exhibition in New York, Chicago and Boston in 1913.
At the same time, salon cubists built their reputation, first of all, regularly exhibiting at the Autumn Salon and the Salon Continue reading