Cubism was born in the years 1907-1911. Pablo Picasso’s 1907 painting Avignon Maidens is often considered a proto-Cubist work. Georges Braque’s “Homes in Estate” (and related works) prompted the critic Louis Vosel to turn to bizarreries cubiques (cubic oddities). Gertrude Stein referred to landscapes painted by Picasso in 1909, for example, “Pond (Reservoir at Horta de Ebro)” as the first Cubist paintings. The first organized group exhibition of cubists took place at the Salon de la Independent in Paris in the spring of 1911 in a room called Hall 41 (Salle 41); it included the works of Jean Metzinger, Albert Gleize, Fernand Leger, Robert Delaunay and Henri Le Focognier, works by Picasso and Braque have not yet been exhibited.
Paul Cezanne Quarry Bibémus (“The Bibemius Quarry”), 1898-1900, Folkwang Museum, Essen, Germany Continue reading
At the turn of the 16th and 17th centuries, two artistic trends emerged in Italian painting: one related to the art of Caravaggio, the second to the work of the Karacci brothers. The activities of these masters not only largely determined the nature of Italian painting. But it also influenced the art of all European art schools of the 17th century.
The essence of the reform of Caravaggio was a completely unconditional recognition of the aesthetic value of reality, to the image of which he turned in his painting. The experience of Caravaggio at an early stage of creativity is one of the sources of the development of everyday genre painting in 17th-century art, for example, the painting “Fortune Teller”.
However, in painting on traditional subjects, Caravaggio remains true to himself – he “translated” the Sacred History into a folk language. The art of Caravaggio gave rise to a whole direction – caravaggism, which has spread not only in Italy, but also in Spain, Flanders, Holland, France. Continue reading